The doctorate in the Nordic countries

This article gives an overview of the research training systems in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden with emphasis on the structure, organisation, time span of the degree, completion rates, labour market and internationalisation of postgraduate education. Even though the various national research training systems in the Nordic countries seem to be becoming more similar, there are still differences in their organisational models. In addition, the article compares the Nordic doctoral systems with those of the USA, the UK, Germany and France-the four countries which traditionally have been the most important recipients of Nordic students seeking research training abroad. The model of the US ‘graduate school’ has been the inspiration and basis for many European initiatives to improve doctoral degree education. In all these countries such schools have been introduced, but often in a modified form and to a limited extent. The main conclusion is that the trend is towards a common international PhD where the content, breadth, length and quality are equivalent.

publication details

Title The doctorate in the Nordic countries
Category Academic article
AuthorSvein Kyvik
AuthorOlaf Tvede
publication year1998
issn0305-0068