Background and history

R&D statistics for Norway has time series back to 1970. Since then there have been several changes in the statistics and methods for gathering statistics. Here are the main changes in chronological order by the slice.

Businesses

The basis for R&D surveys in business is gradually expanded (1983, 1985 and 1987). In 1985, it made a significant expansion of the group of corporations within the computing and technical activities. For 1995, the survey was further widened with several service sectors, and that it was drawn a variety of devices down to 10 employees in manufacturing and some service activities. In 1994 Telecom reorganized Telenor A/S. This meant that Telecom’s research which was previously included in the institutes were moved to the business from 1995. At the same time were also other state enterprises transferred from the department to the business sector as the executive sector, in accordance with international guidelines for research and statistics. Beginning in 1999, additional units have been moved from the department to the business sector, mainly units in the intersection of agriculture and food industry.

Investigation Unit in business were up to 1999 industry unit. Beginning in 2001 this changed to enterprises as the main device, but with the depletion of certain main variables on business.

Tertiary sector

Universities and university colleges have been included from the start. Here is an overview of the major changes in coverage and classifications:

1974: District colleges included.

1991: Before this year included staff and D resources at universities and colleges central administrations in category other staff. According to the revised guidelines of the OECD are those from 1991 are not included in staff and man figures.

1993: Actuarial calculations are included for R & D in FTEs and expenditures for the entire regional colleges (pedagogical colleges, engineering colleges, social sector and health sector).

1994: Participation in EU projects signed before the EEA Agreement was implemented in 1994 is classified as a Research funded but later participation is classified as foreign funded.

1995: As a result of college reform in 1994 turned the former regional colleges into 26 state colleges. These include the R & D statistics in line with universities and colleges – and the expenses, FTEs and staff covered.

1995: The University Centre in Svalbard (UNIS) is included.

1997: University Lecturers included in staff numbers – which now includes all scientific / academic staff with higher education.

1997: These schools include: Diakonhjemmets Science Center, Police Academy in Oslo, Oslo National Academy and the National Academy of Bergen.

1999: Institute for Research on Cancer classified in the higher education sector – former institutes.

2005: The Agricultural University is the University of Life Sciences (UMB) and the College of the University of Stavanger Stavanger.

2005: The statistical basis of health expanded and improved.

2007: Further improvement of data for health authorities. This applies to both university hospitals included in the higher education sector and other hospitals that are part of the institute sector. The expanded data base for health authorities also affects estimates of R & D funding in the state budget.

2007: The Queen Maud’s College of Early Childhood Education and Defense skolesenter (later Defence College) included.

2008: University College included in the statistics as the University of Agder (created 09.01.2007).

2008: All research staff at health institutions are included.

2009: Tromsø University College merged with the University of Tromsø.

2009: Some units have been modified to industry sectors. Mainly talking about transfers from the higher education sector institutes. The largest of these is the transfer of Uni Research (formerly UNIFOBAS).

2011: BUC is the University of Nordland.

Institute Sector

1995: Government business is transferred from the department to the business sector as the executive sector, in accordance with international guidelines for research and statistics. This entailed that Telecom’s Research Institute was moved from sector to sector.

1999: Institute of Cancer Research Institute transferred from sector to tertiary sector.

1999: Some units moved from the institute sector to sector, mainly units in the intersection of agriculture and food industry.

2005: The statistical basis of health expanded and improved.

2007: Further improvement of data for health authorities. This applies to both university hospitals included in the higher education sector and other hospitals that are part of the institute sector. The expanded data base for health authorities also affects estimates of R & D funding in the state budget.

2008: The introduction of annual R & D statistics institutes.

2009: Some units have been modified to industry sectors. Mainly talking about transfers from the higher education sector institutes. The largest of these is the transfer of Uni Research (formerly UNIFOBAS).
Change in field division

Beginning in 1995, the field division slightly changed (included Research Council fagklassifisering which is a revised version of University Council). This means inter alia that fisheries are included as a separate category under field agriculture and fisheries and veterinary medicine. Especially for institutes lead the new division to a significant shift in R & D spending from math / science to agriculture and fisheries and veterinary medicine, without necessarily due to real changes in R & D activities.

The revised field section is also some subjects during technology specified in a different way. This means that the activities of some groups at NTNU previously classified under math / science, added to the technology.